E-waste contains a variety of heavy metals, volatile organic compounds and particulate matter and other harmful substances, if handled properly, these harmful substances will be released into the environment, water, soil pollution, will seriously endanger the health of mankind. So, at present, China's e-waste recycling status quo how?
Explore the New Measures of Recycling New E - waste in Three Levels
Electronic waste, commonly known as e-waste, refers to the abandoned electrical and electronic products are no longer used, including waste computers, mobile communications products, televisions, refrigerators and other waste equipment and spare parts. With the electrical and electronic products replacement cycle is shorter and shorter, the number of e-waste is also in the explosive growth stage.
E-waste contains a variety of heavy metals, volatile organic compounds and particulate matter and other harmful substances, therefore, compared to ordinary household waste, e-waste recycling process is rather special. If not handled properly, these harmful substances will be released into the environment, water, soil and other pollution, will seriously endanger human health.
"Global E-waste Monitoring 2014", released by UNU, states that in 2014, a total of 41.8 million tons of e-waste were generated worldwide, while only 16% of e-waste was recycled or reused.
So, our country in e-waste recycling problems and what problems? Through the experience of developed countries, combined with their own experience, can find a practical solution? These issues worthy of our study and discussion.
First, the status of China's electronic waste recycling
(A) China's e-waste recycling legislation
China has promulgated the "Solid Waste Pollution Prevention Law", "Cleaner Production Promotion Law" and other laws and regulations, the e-waste recycling treatment has made the corresponding provisions.
According to the relevant provisions of these two laws, the State Council in February 2009 introduced the "Waste Electrical and Electronic Product Recycling Management Regulations", "Regulations" for electrical and electronic products, recycling activities to regulate the activities of China's e-waste recycling and disposal Into a new era. According to the "Regulations", in 2015 the Development and Reform Commission and other six departments jointly issued a new version of "waste electrical and electronic products processing directory", the electronic waste from the five kinds of waste electrical and electronic products extended to printers, mobile phones and other 14 categories.
In the electrical and electronic products, pollution control, in January 2016, the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology Development and Reform Commission and other 8 departments issued the "electrical and electronic products, restrictions on the use of hazardous substances management approach." In the original "electronic information products pollution control management approach" on the basis of the new "approach" to expand the scope of the restricted use of hazardous substances and improve the use of harmful substances restricted use of the management.
(B) of China's electronic waste recycling problems
According to the Ministry of Commerce released the "China Renewable Resource Recycling Industry Development Report 2016" shows that in 2015 China's five major waste electrical and electronic products (waste TV, waste refrigerators, waste washing machines, waste air conditioning, waste computer) recycling is about 15,274 Million units, or 3.48 million tons, an increase of 12.5%. However, in view of the rapid growth of China's large-scale consumer electronics consumer electronics market, its recycling and reuse still faces great challenges.
Compared with the large-scale waste electrical and electronic products, small electrical and electronic equipment such as U disk, mobile phones, electric toothbrushes, etc. more difficult to obtain an effective recycling, which is China's current e-waste recycling is closely related to the main way.
China's e-waste recycling is still in a state of extensive disorder, most of the waste electrical and electronic equipment are individual retail recycling, a small workshop for simple dismantling and processing. In this non-professional dismantling and processing process, not only some of the valuable resources are not fully recovered, but also a large number of secondary waste and pollutants. These secondary wastes and pollutants are often mixed with landfill after landfill or incineration, and then on the water, soil and air serious harm.
According to the Ministry of Commerce statistics, as of the end of 2015, China's waste electrical and electronic products to deal with the number of enterprises reached 109. However, many regular e-waste disposal companies can not be recovered due to the normal capacity of enterprises to maintain e-waste, can not be healthy development.
On the one hand, on the one hand, our country in the e-waste recycling law is imperfect, not to establish a sound and effective recycling management system and system, such as the main responsibility is not clear, management system operability is not strong; the other hand, the public E-waste recycling awareness is weak, poor social guidance properly, resulting in e-waste can not focus on recovery.
In addition, despite the "Prohibit the list of imported solid waste", the clear list of waste electrical and electronic products included in the list of prohibited imports, but each year there are still a large number of e-waste through illegal channels into China. These e-waste can not be professional recycling and harmless treatment and disposal, seriously endangering the ecological environment and the public health. Therefore, as soon as possible to improve the e-waste recycling system, enhance public awareness of environmental protection, crack down on illegal recycling channels is imperative.
Second, the German experience in e-waste recycling
As the forerunner of e-waste management, Germany has achieved remarkable results in recycling. Following the German e-waste recycling practices, for example, to provide appropriate reference for our country.
(A) German electronic waste recycling legal basis
As early as 2002, the EU introduced the "Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment Directive", which is well-known WEEE directive. In 2012, the EU has revised the WEEE Directive. As a member of the European Union, Germany has made a corresponding change to the Directive, and promulgated a new "Electrical and Electronic Equipment Law" in China in October 2015.
The new "Electrical and Electronic Equipment Law" significantly improved the convenience of consumers to dispose of waste electrical and electronic equipment: the Act provides that large-scale sales of electrical and electronic products, while selling equivalent electrical and electronic equipment, will be obliged to recover the corresponding free of charge Equipment; and edge length of less than 25cm of small electrical and electronic equipment such as mobile phones, hair dryer, etc. must be unconditionally recovered.
Here is a large-scale sales of home appliances over 400 m2 of shopping malls, also includes a large-scale logistics and storage area of network providers, these online vendors must set up within the specified period of time electrical and electronic equipment recycling sites.
In addition, Germany will be the EU "RoHS Directive" into domestic law, limiting the six kinds of hazardous substances (including lead, mercury, cadmium, hexavalent chromium, polybrominated biphenyls and polybrominated diphenyl ether) in the use of electrical and electronic equipment.
These two laws for the life cycle of electrical and electronic equipment production, consumption, recycling, dealing with all aspects of the corresponding provisions, forming a closed-loop mode of operation, with strong maneuverability.